MPU6000 vs MPU6050 vs MPU6500

MPU6000 and MPU6050

Deep down, MPU6000 and MPU6050 are the same same hardware. They both have the same 3 axis gyroscope and the same 3 axis accelerometer. Both allows max 8kHz gyro sampling rate. From a flight controllers point of view, the only difference between them is bus that connects them to CPU. MPU6000 allows for both I2C and SPI, while MPU6050 has only I2C. That makes MPU6000 better device, but only when SPI bus is in use. I2C is too slow to handle 8kHz gyro updates.



No, MPU6500 is a different monster. It supports both I2C and SPI, allows 32kHz gyro update rate and has much wider gyro signal bandwidth. Is also smaller and consumes less energy. So, in theory, it is much better device than MPU6000. There are some problems with it. First of all, it is much more vibration sensitive than MPU6000. While soft mounting of MPU6000 is usually not needed, MPU6500 will benefit a lot from it. Very often it is even required. Second of all, at this moment, only RaceFlight can utilize 32kHz gyro update rates.


MPU9150 and MPU9250

What are those two MPUs? It’s rather simple this time.

  • MPU9150 is a MPU6050 with integrated AK8975 magnetometer
  • MPU9250 is a MPU6500 with integrated AK8963 magnetometer

Images: 1 2

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ATtiny85 Light Sensor – I2C slave device

I love AVR ATtinyx5 series microcontrollers. They are cheap, easy to use, they can be programmed just like Arduinos and comparing to their size they offer great features. For example, they can be used as remote analog to digital converters connected to master device using I2C bus.

Background: few year ago I've build a weather station based on Raspberry Pi. It collects various data and displays them on dedicated web page and Android app. Every few months I try to add a new sensor to it. Last time it was a daylight sensor. Raspberry Pi does not offer ADC inputs and I has few ATtiny85 on hand that time. One to another, few hours later: photoresistor based daylight meter sensor connected via I2C bus.

ATtiny85 as light sensor with I2C bus

Electric assembly is pretty simple: ATtiny85 directly connected to Raspberry Pi via I2C, photoresistor with 10kOhm pull down connected to ATtiny85 and signal LED.

attiny85 i2c slave light sensor with photoresistor

Code driving this rig is also pretty simple: watchdog timer wakes up ATtiny every few minutes, measures voltage, filters it and stores in memory. Every time read operation is requested, last filtered ADC value (10 bits as 2 bytes).

I2C support is provided by TinyWireS library that configures USI as I2C slave.

 * This function is executed when there is a request to read sensor
 * To get data, 2 reads of 8 bits are required
 * First requests send 8 older bits of 16bit unsigned int
 * Second request send 8 lower bytes
 * Measurement is executed when request for first batch of data is requested
void requestEvent()

  if (reg_position >= reg_size)
      reg_position = 0;

 * Setup I2C
TinyWireS.onRequest(requestEvent); //Set I2C read event handler

Example code to read from device might look like this:

Wire.requestFrom(0x13, 2);    // request 2 bytes from slave device #0x13

int i =0;
unsigned int readout = 0;

while (Wire.available()) { // slave may send less than requested
byte c =; // receive a byte as character

if (i == 0) {
    readout = c;
} else {
    readout = readout << 8;
    readout = readout + c;



Full source code is available on GitHub and my Weather Station with almost a year of light level history is available here.

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Micro MinimOSD stops overlaying in flight: solution

Both MinimOSD and Micro MinimOSD suffers from irritating technical problem. In some setups, they stops overlaying data during hard maneuvers or even right after arming. Problem is very simple: chip MAX7456 is extremely sensitive in terms of supply voltage quality. Working motors and/or servos, can introduce enough power supply noise to occasionally force MAX7456 to reset.

Luckily, solution is simple: separate LC power filter or big enough capacitor connected in parallel to 5V pads of MinimOSD.

Almost any big enough electrolytic capacitor will do (> 100uF, the bigger the better) but best results can be archived with low ESR > 500uF capacitor.

In my case symptoms were not very strong, usually only very fast flips caused MAX7456 to reset, but I’ve decided to go big: 1000uF low ESR capacitor.

Low ESR 1000uF Capacitor

Micro MinimOSD has 5V pads on a side and they are the best place to attach capacitor.

Micro MinimOSD

As you can see below, capacitor is bigger than MinimOSD itself and I had to think a little how to place it inside my Reptile X4R 220 frame.

Micro MinimOSD with capacitor attached

Results are great: no more MinimOSD problems. OSD stays on all the time, no matter how hard I use the stics.

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HC-12 433MHz RF serial module range test

As I mentioned in my first post about HC-12 433MHz radio modules, I’ve put my interest in them for telemetry purposes. While S.Port telemetry I’m using in FrSky Taranis radio might have higher range than HC-12, it is closed environment. Since $10 for a pair of HC-12 is not much, I’ve decided for more open DIY solution.

Setup on a quadcopter consist of one HC-12 configured for FU3 mode and baud rate 9600bps connected to SPRacingF3 UART3 port and “air cooled” (shortened with a coil) 433MHz whip antenna. Well, to be precise, it’s 450MHz since I changed working frequency. Antenna is not tuned or scientifically computed. Just 433MHz version shortened a little using proportions. Antenna is mounted on GPS mast. In next version I will probably replace whip antenna with Vee antenna.

HC-12 Rf 433MHz module in quadcopter

"Air cooled" antenna on quadcopter

Continue reading “HC-12 433MHz RF serial module range test” »

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HC-12 433MHz wireless serial communication module configuration


HC-12 are cheap 433MHz wireless serial port communication modules with a range up to 1800m in open space. Each costs about $5 when bought from China, and 2 of them can create wireless UART link that can be used, for example, to transfer telemetry data from UAV. Or drive IoT device. Or connect sensors. Or whatever else one can think of.

HC-12 433MHz wireless serial communication module

It is based on SI4463 RF chip, has build in microcontroller, can be configured using AT commands and allows to use external antenna. Working frequency is divided into 100 channels starting from 433,4MHz up to 473,0MHz with 400kHz channel separation. Maximum output power is 100mW (20dBm) and receiver sensitivity differs from -117dBm to -100dBm, depending on transmission speed. It accepts 3,2V-5,5V power supply and can be used with 3.3V and 5V UART voltage devices (5V safe). Continue reading “HC-12 433MHz wireless serial communication module configuration” »

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How to flash firmware to ESP-01 ESP8266 WiFi module

One can think that internet know everything about everything. Yesterday I’ve learned the hard way that is does not. It took me better part of evening to find a working way to flash firmware, any firmware, to cheap ESP-01 ESP8266 WiFi modules. There are many tutorials, most of them were just wrong in my case. If I had Windows PC, that might have been simpler. But I don’t.

ESP8266 ESP-01 Version 2

So, if you want to flash ESP8266 on any PC (Windows, Mac, Linux) here is what you should do: Continue reading “How to flash firmware to ESP-01 ESP8266 WiFi module” »

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How to measure battery capacity with Arduino

Battery capacity measurement can be useful in many situations. And it is not hard, only requires enough time to discharge battery completely with know resistance and a way to measure voltage in the circuit. Ohm’s law will to the rest: I = U / R

Let’s say, we want to measure standard AA 1.5V alkaline battery capacity. Why 1.5V? They are common, made by many manufacturers and sold for different prices. And not always more expensive is better. To do this, we will need:

  • AA 1.5V battery
  • resistor to discharge it. We need high current to discharge battery in reasonable time, so low resistance is suggested. On the other hand, high current means o lot of heat, so we need a resistor that can survive this. I suggest using 2.2Ohm 5W ceramic resistors.
  • Arduino to measure voltage in circuit. Any Arduino or plain ATmega or ATtiny with A/D converter will do.

So, first a simple electrical circuit:

how to measure battery capacity with arduino

And some code that will be run every second:

voltage = 5.0 * ((float) analogRead(V_METER)) / 1024.0;

float current = voltage / R_LOAD;
joules += voltage * current;
float wattHours = (joules / 3600.0) * 1000.0;

And here how it work:

  1. We need to measure voltage in circuit. This is why, in first step, we read 10bit A/D converter and scale output to 5V. Why 5V? Arduino Uno works on 5V, and it is the reference voltage here,
  2. Next, lets compute current using Ohm’s law I = U/R,
  3. With know current current we can compute work using P = U * I and store it in joules variable,
  4. Last step is to change joules to Watt hours.

If instead of Watt hours we want Ampere hours, there is no need to count joules. Instead of that, sum current and final value divide by 3600 (there are 3600 seconds in one hour). Like this:

voltage = 5.0 * ((float) analogRead(V_METER)) / 1024.0;

float current = voltage / R_LOAD;
ampereSeconds += current;
float ampereHours = ampereSeconds / 3600.0;

Full code is available here


  • this circuit allows to measure batteries with voltage up to 5V. Anything above it will damage A/D converter
  • to measure higher voltages, voltage divider will be required
  • with higher voltage, power loss on resistor will increase. It will get very hot and might burn

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VirtualWire support for Raspberry Pi

FS1000A and XY-MK-5V 433MHz RF modules are very often first choice for cheap and dirty Do It Yourself wireless communication. Pair of those , allowing one way radio communication, const less than 3 dollars or euros. So they are really cheap. Limited range and transmission speed limits their real life usage, but simple assembly and extremely easy programming are additional advantage over more complex solutions. Specially in Arduino world, with VirtualWire library. I will not write about it right now, there is enough on the internet already.

FS1000A and XY-MK-5V 433MHz RF modules for Raspberry Pi

Continue reading “VirtualWire support for Raspberry Pi” »

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Programming ATtiny85 and ATtiny45 with Arduino IDE

What is ATtiny

ATtiny is a fimily of microcontrollers by Atmel, the same company that provides ATmega series used widely in “real” Arduinos. Comparing to ATmega, ATtinys are much simpler, smaller (usually), with less features. But also cheaper, easier to connect, using less energy, and trust me, in many many cases you do not need 32kB of flash memory. If, for example, you want to build a device that will beep every 10 minutes which microcontroller would you use: huge DIP-28 ATmega328P from Arduino UNO R3 or small DIP-8 ATtiny25 that ususes way less power and costs around 1EUR? I would use ATtiny.

ATtiny85 as light sensor with I2C bus

There are many microcontrollers in ATtiny family. In this tutorial and all future in this series I will concentrate on ATtiny85 with 8kB of flash memory. There are 2 simpler versions of it: ATtiny25 and ATtiny45 with respectively 2kB and 4kB of flash, but price difference between them is so small, that I see no point of trying to use them. When buoght from China, it might be even possible to buy ATtiny85 cheaper than its smaller brothers. Continue reading “Programming ATtiny85 and ATtiny45 with Arduino IDE” »

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Read RC PWM signal with Arduino

Arduinos are cheap and simple development board. You can do a lot with even the simplest of them. For example build you own quadcopter and flight controller (after all MultiWii = Arduino + MPU6050). Of course, this is not as simple as one might imagine and there are few (actually a lot) obstacles that needs to be overcomed. One of them, and very basic, is how to read RC PWM signal provided by radio receiver.

Signal to decode

RC PWM signal passed from radio receiver to servos, ESC, flight controllers is encoded with a length of pulse. Pulse length of 1000us (micro seconds) is minimum stick position and pulse of 2000us length is maximum stick position. Pulses repeat every 20ms for standard 50Hz refresh rate. Like this:

RC PWM Signal

So far, nothing fancy. Continue reading “Read RC PWM signal with Arduino” »

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