Detecting Cleanflight PID tuning issues with Blackbox: gyro noise

After a short brake, let’s return to Blackbox series with new entry: “How much gyro noise is too much?”.

Almost all PID tuning tutorials states: reduce vibrations that affects gyroscope and accelerometer readouts. Yes, this true: any vibrations that appear during flight affects gyroscope and accelerometer readouts are bad and should be kept as low as possible. This can be done by balancing motors, propellers, using stiffer frame, adding dampeners, lowering LPF filters. But how much vibration induced gyro noise is too much? Let me answer with four Blackbox screenshots:

Super smooth gyro traces, no noise

smooth gyro traces

This is how it should looks like! Perfect trace. If it is archived without lowered LPF filters, then kudos for balancing everything!

Somehow noisy gyro traces

somehow noisy gyro traces

Little noise appears, but amplitude is low, everything is under control.

Noisy gyro traces

reasonably noisy gyro traces

Gyro noise is visible. It is not a problem yet. If it was a result of raised LPF cutoff frequency, extra noise might be worth lowered signal delay. I would start to think how to reduce it on a hardware level. Perhaps bearings are dying, or propellers should be rebalanced?

Extremely noisy gyro traces

extremely noisy gyro traces

This is how unflyable gyro noise level looks like! If you see have problems with flight performance, you know what is causing it. This have to be fixed ASAP before everything else.

Detecting Cleanflight PID tuning issues with Blackbox: not enough P

This is third part of Cleanflight PID tuning tutorial with Blackbox. Previously I’ve showed examples of:

This time it is time for something slightly different: not enough P gain. Usually this problem can be identified without any log analysis. Symptoms are quite visible: multirotor is sluggish during maneuvers, has a tendency to change attitude on its own, constant course corrections are required. In worse cases, it is unflyable. But how does it look like on Blackbox logs.

First of all, symptoms are not so clearly visible. There are no huge oscillations for example. Zoomed out log might event look good on a first glance. For example like this:

blackbox pid tuning not enough P overview

Continue reading “Detecting Cleanflight PID tuning issues with Blackbox: not enough P” »

Detecting Cleanflight PID tuning issues with Blackbox: excess D gain

Welcome to second part of Blackbox PID tuning tutorial. Last time I have showed few examples how excess P gain might look like. Today I will write few words about next common PID tuning problem: too much D. Derivative (future) part of PID controller is very useful, since it allows to smoothen control loop output when it is┬áreaching the target. So, at the end of move (roll, pitch, yaw, anything else) multicopter will start to “slow down” before target is reached. It’s just like accelerator pedal in a car. When you want to reach 50 you start to release it before you reach 50, and not in the exact moment you reached target speed. If you would, you would have to use brake to slow down to 50. Derivative part helps not to overshoot. Without it, movement would be shaky, not smooth.

Unfortunately, D is tricky. Like everything that tries to see the future, it is unreliable and can introduce noise. We do not like noise. Not enough D = shaky, mechanical, movement and overshooting. Too much D = extra noise, vibrations, damped response.

How excess D would look like in Blackbox logs? Like this:

Too much D gain on Cleanflight Continue reading “Detecting Cleanflight PID tuning issues with Blackbox: excess D gain” »

Detecting Cleanflight PID tuning issues with Blackbox: excess P gain

Almost all quadcopter PID tuning tutorials can be summarized into one sentence: “Increase P until you see oscillations, then lower it”. Plus some thoughts about I and very vague advices about D and that is all. When I got into the hobby, I’ve read all of those tutorials. And I did know more about PID tuning than before that. I even had more questions than before. How to recognize high frequency oscillations, how to recognize low frequency oscillations. Lower P? OK, but how much? And D? How to tune this bloody D? As a result, every time I tried, I ended up with very snappy but shaky quadcopter that maybe responded very quickly to commands, but was very shaky and was making strange noises.

And then came Cleanflight and Blackbox. Live became simpler. What I’ve learned from Blackbox logs is that I wanted high P so much, I had too much of it in the end. Actual oscillations begins before we see or hear them and excess D introduces jello. Blackbox simplified things, but still, logs analysis is something like an art. You have to know what to look for. Continue reading “Detecting Cleanflight PID tuning issues with Blackbox: excess P gain” »